Historical Calendar. National Historical Institute, Manila, 1996.
1542 Ruy Lopez de Villalobos starts his expedition to the Philippines from Navidad, Mexico, later giving the same "Felipinas" to the archipelago, in honor of the crown prince, Don Felipe of Spain, afterwards known as Felipe II. He carries official instructions to colonize the Western Islands, establish trade relations, preach the Christian religion, and avoid going to the Moluccas in deference to Portuguese rights. 1565 The people of Mactan, conquerors of Magellan and his men, in 1521, continue to defy Spain. To subdue them, Legaspi sends an expedition under Master-of-Camp Mateo de Saez and Captain Martin de Goiti. This expedition puts Mactan to the torch. The people of Mactan retaliate by raiding the Spanish settlements in Cebu and burning more than 20 Spanish houses. 1849 Birth of Valentin Diaz, treasurer of the Katipunan, in Paoay, Ilocos Norte. 1856 Birth of Toribio Antillon, painter, in San Juan, La Union. Died on September 19, 1913. 1859 Macaturin Volcano, in Cotabato, erupts. This eruption is considered the longest in the Philippines, having lasted almost uninterruptedly, from November 1, 1859 to March, 1960, 1897 The Biyak-na-bata Republic is established. Its officials are Emilio Aguinaldo, President; Mariano Trias, Vice-President; Isabelo Artacho, Secretary of the Interior; Antonio Montenegro, Secretary of Foreign Affairs; Baldomero Aguinaldo, Secretary of Treasury, and Emiliano Riego de Dios, Secretary of War. Its constitution declares that the aim of the Revolution is "the separation of the Philippines from the Spanish monarchy and its formation into an independent state," and includes a bill of rights to safeguard the individual liberties of the people. 1898 Rev. Felixberto Suani, army captain, is authorized to organize secondary colleges in the Ilocos Provinces and to request the aid and cooperation of local officials. 1899 El Filipino, a newspaper edited by Manuel Artigas y Cuerva of the Republican Committee of Barcelona, is issued in that city. 1945 President Sergio Osmeña, Sr., signs Commonwealth Act No. 701, which appropriates P500,000 for the resumption of the activities and functions relative to the protection of early infancy, maternity, and childbirth. This act makes possible the reorganization of puericulture centers and maternity houses.