Historical Calendar. National Historical Institute, Manila, 1996.

31 October


Rafael Maria de Aguilar, liberal governor, issues a decree prohibiting the exportation of small silver coins.


Birth of Colonel Quintin Salas, Ilongo revolutionary leader and the last Visayan revolutionist to surrender to the Americans.  Died on January 24,, 1917.


Birth of Carlos Ronquillo, Tagalog writer and newspaperman, in Floridablanca, Pampanga.  Died on October 18, 1941.


The Madrid authorities receive a telegram from Hongkong informing them that the situation in the Philippines is becoming critical with the rapid spread of the Revolution.

Aguinaldo issues his first two manifestos from Kawit, Cavite.  One entitled "Liberty, Equality and Fraternity," in which he defines the aim of the revolution as the attainment of independence and another which announces the formation of a central revolutionary committee for the government of towns under the revolutionary government.


Ramon Avanceña is appointed associate justice of the Supreme Court.

30 October


Death of Governor-General Simon de Anda y Salazar at the Hospital de San Felipe, Cavite.


The new marriage law is proclaimed.


Francis Burton Harrison appoints the following Filipinos to the new Commission: Victorino Mapa, Rafael Mapa, Vicente Ilustre, Jaime C. de Veyra, and Vicente Singson Encarnacion.


Flag Day is declared by Governor-General Francis Burton Harrison in accordance with Act No. 2871 of the Philippine Legislature, restoring the use of the Filipino flag.

29 October


Birth of Antonio Luna, doctor of pharmacy, writer, patriot, the greatest Filipino strategist during the Filipino-American War, in Binondo, Manila.


A royal provision establishes the faculty of medicine and pharmacy and reorganizes the University of Santo Tomas.


The position of Vice-Governor of each province is created.

28 October


Father Martin Rada, Augustinian, and Geronimo Martin arrive in the Philippines from China.  With them are three Chinese captains, who bring a letter for the governor-general from the viceroy of Fukien asking for the surrender of Limahong, not knowing that the latter has long left the Philippines.


Marcelo H. del Pillar leaves for Spain to evade persecution by the friars.


Antonio Regidor requests his lawyer in Singapore to rescue Rizal as soon as the ss Colon reaches there from Barcelona.


Aguinaldo calls field commanders to Biyak-na-Bato to decide on a course of action that will challenge Primo de Rivera's refusal to institute reforms.  The "War Party," headed by Mamerto Natividad, votes to continue the struggle.


Act No. 3827 is approved by the Philippine Legislature, declaring the last Sunday of August of every year as an official holiday known as National Heroes Day.

27 October


By royal decree, Philippine commerce with Nueva España is restricted to 300,000 to 500,000 pesos, and to certain products and manufactured articles, from which are strictly excluded all silken fabrics; the amount of money sent in return is limited to 600,000 pesos; citizens of Nueva España are strictly forbidden to send their own money to the Philippines and various precautions, restrictions, penalties provided.  This decree was received at Manila on August 2, 1722.


A decree of the superior civil government orders that pupils may attend school of primary instruction until the age of 18, voluntary beginning at the age of 14.


The Revolutionary Government submits a proposal to send five commissioners to Manila to arrange the release of disabled Spanish prisoners and discuss peace conditions.


Senate President Manuel L. Quezon is inducted into "Legionarios del Trabajo," a labor organization.

26 October


A projected revolt under Magat Salamat is dicoverered by the Spanish authorities.


Manila is hit by a severe earthquake and a typhoon


President McKinley sends the following message to the American Commissioners:  "The cessation of hostilities must be of the whole archipelago or none.  The latter is wholly inadmissible and the former must therefore be required."


Father Aglipay publicly celebrates his first Mass as "Obispo Maximo" of the newly created church on Azcarraga Street corner Ylaya, in Tondo, Manila.


Resurreccion Hidalgo, a great Filipino painter is buried in Barcelona.


Creation of the Court of Industrial Relations to settle disputes between capital and labor.


Simeon de Jesus, colonel of World War II, is arrested in Paco, Manila, by the Japanese military police and imprisoned at Fort Santiago.

25 October


The ship of Governor Gomez Perez Dasmariñas is becalmed off Sulphur Point, Batangas.  The Chinese rower's under their leader, P'an Ho-wu, mutiny and massacre the sleeping Spaniards, including the Governor.


The officials and residents of Manila are compelled to take the oath of allegiance to King George III, of England.


Sidewalks are ordered laid in Manila by Governor-General Narciso Claveria.


The Academia Militar is founded in Malolos, Bulacan.


Public Act No. 488 is approved appropriating P65,964.00 for the expenditures of civil governments of Mindoro, Batangas and Marinduque.


Units of the American and Japanese naval forces flight in the Battle of Surigao Strait.  The Americans are led by Admiral Jesse B. Oldendorf.

24 October


Birth of Pedro Serrano Laktaw, teacher, lexicographer, in Cupang, Bulacan, Bulacan.


Birth of Juan Luna, great Filipino painter and patriot.  Died on December 7, 1899, in Hongkong.


Birth of Rafael Palma, statesman, educator, scholar, newspaperman, historian and founder of La Independencia, the official newspaper of the Revolution.  Died on May 24, 1939.


The Burgos Institute, a school for boys in Malolos, Bulacan founded by Enrique Mendiola, is given official recognition as a secondary college by the government.


Authority is conferred upon the Municipal Board of Manila to grant a franchise for the construction and operation of an electric light, heat and power plant.

23 October


Residents of Taal, Lemery, Calaca, and Bayungyungan rise in arms and try to cross the Pansipit river, by way of San Nicolas where the defending garrison is soon joined by reinforcements from Taal.  The revolutionaries disperse after a brief skirmish.


The Spanish garrison in Baler, Tayabas (now Quezon) capitulates after holding off for sometime an attack launched by about four hundred Filipinos.  The attackers come from Pantabangan, Caranglan, and San Jose de Casiguran and are led by Teodorico Novico.


The Commonwealth Government with President Sergio Osmeña, Sr., as President, is restored at Tacloban, Leyte, by General MacArthur.

Start of the four-day naval battle of Leyte Gulf during which much of Japan's remaining sea power is destroyed.

22 October


The bill on the freedom of the press, which provides for the establishment of a board to protect the press in Manila, is passed by the Spanish Cortes.


The Central Revolutionary Committee is created in Hongkong.


Felipe Calderon is asked by General Lawton to help in organizing San Isidro and other towns in the province of Nueva Ecija.

Apolinario Mabini, while vacationing in Rosales, Pangasinan, addresses a manifesto to the Filipino clergy urging them to organize a Filipino National Church.


The cornerstone of the Capitol Building at Constitution Hill, Quezon City, is laid.

21 October


Legaspi reports to the Spanish King that Gonzalo Pereira, captain-general of the Portuguese, has again appeared at the Spanish settlement in the Port of Cebu and demolished its fortifications.


In recognition of the progress made in Lipa, Batangas, a royal decree converts the town into a villa possessing special privileges.


Camilio C. de Polavieja becomes Governor-General of the Philippines.  The military courts become very active, and many Filipinos held as authors of the conspiracy are executed, among them Rizal; conflicts take place in the provinces of Manila, Bataan, Pampanga, and Batangas; publication of an amnesty and regiments of Filipino volunteers are organized.


Gregorio Aglipay issues a letter to the Filipino clergy urging them to organize themselves into a cohesive body geared to the needs of the national emergency and to create a council which will ask the Pope to appoint Filipinos to all church positions from archbishop down to the lowest parish priest.

The 69th Regiment stationed in Mindanao joins the Revolution in the company of the Engineer corps and some convicts from the penal colonies.


The Bureau of Archives is established to take charge of the public records of the Insular Government.


Francis B. Sayre succeeds J. Weldon Jones as Governor-General of the Philippines.


U.S. Carrier Task Force attacks Luzon and Visayas.


President Manuel A. Roxas approves Republic Act No. 73, calling for a plebiscite on March 11, 1947 to decide on the acceptance or rejection of the proposed amendment, popularly known as "Parity Amendment."

20 October


A papal decree is issued for the foundation of an ecclesiastical province of the Dominican order in the Philippines.


The Chinese retreat to the mountains of San Pablo, Laguna, and there make their last stand against the government forces consisting of 200 Spaniards, 300 Japanese, and 1500 Filipinos, under the command of Don Cristobal de Axqueta Moncha.


Birth of General Artemio Ricarte "Vibora," revolutionary leader.  Died on July 31, 1945.


Inauguration of the first street-car service, pony-drawn, from Manila to Malabon, by Governor-General Valeriano Weyler.


Andres Bonifacio presides over a meeting of Katipunan directors in Quiapo where Feliciano Jocson, treasurer of the Association, presents a record of the collections submitted to him by the representative-directors of the Supreme Council.


Aguinaldo issues a decree appointing Fr. Gregorio Aglipay Military Vicar General thus makes Aglipay the official religious leader of the revolutionary government.


An Act is approved for the election of the third member of provincial boards, and abolishing the position of provincial secretary.

The sum of P1,134,000 is appropriated for the construction of sewers in the City of Manila.


A famous promise of General Douglas MacArthur, "I shall return" is fulfilled when he and President Sergio Osmeña land in Leyte with the U.S. forces.

19 October


The Spanish Queen issues a royal decree authorizing the return of the Jesuits to the Phippines to handle the missions in Mindoro and Jolo.


Birth of Mariano Limjap, businessman and member of the Malolos Congress.  Died on March 4, 1926.


Antonio Luna is dismissed as director of the Municipal Laboratory of Manila because of his revolutionary activities.


The Universidad Literaria de Filipinas, the seat of highest learning of the Republic, is established in Malolos, Bulacan, with Dr. Joaquin Gonzales as its first President.  He is succeeded by Dr. Leon Ma. Guerrero.

General Elwell S. Otis writes the Secretary of War concerning actual conditions in the Philippines; "Situation somewhat improved.  Influence of Filipinos of education and property not desiring independent government, by hostile to Spain, gaining ascendancy in revolutionary councils.  Believe Spanish residents constantly plotting to inaugurate hostilities between our forces and Filipinos.  Freedom of pres permitted, but greatly abused.  Many articles published entirely devoid of truth; have no effect here.  Filipino authority crude… Aguninaldo moderately recognized."

18 October


Jose Rizal boards the steamer Melbourne in Marseilles bound for Hongkong.


Timber and other forest products for use in the construction and equipment of certain railway lines in the Islands are exempted from internal revenue taxes.


U.S. Carrier Task Forces launch a two-day attack on Northern and Central Philippines.


The Philippine Politburo is smashed with the arrest of 23 top-ranking Filipino communists in Manila.

17 October


Bishop Domingo Salazar calls a council of various ecclesiastical dignitaries to discuss the liberation of Filipino slaves held by the Spaniards.  This council assails the delay caused by Governor Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa and other civil officials, in the emancipation of Filipino slaves contrary to the King's order and declares "the freedom of the Filipinos can not be deferred as it is a matter of natural and divine right and clear justice."


A Royal decree rules that the cabezas de barangay be elected if they preserve their Cabecerias and the collection of tributes.


The Social Security, a voluntary association for social security, is founded.


Birth of Dr. Maximo Viola, the friend of Rizal who is responsible for financing the publication of the Noli.  Died on September 3, 1933.


Father Gregorio Aglipay proclaims the establishment of a new religious sect in Manila to be known as the "Aglipayan Church."  Aglipay formally separates himself from Rome and celebrates Mass as the "Obispo Maximo of the Philippine Independent Church."


The Philippine Independence Act, otherwise known as the Hares-Hawes-Cutting Act, is rejected by the Philippine Legislature.  Objections are made to the provisions of the law regarding American-Philippine Trade relations, which are disadvantageous to the Philippines and to the retention of naval reservations by the United States, a step which violates the national dignity and sovereignty.

16 October


Birth of Florentino Torres, jurist, and second chief justice of the Supreme Court, in Sta. Cruz, Manila.  Died on April 29, 1927.


General Primo de Rivera issues a decree calling for Filipino volunteers in all provinces of Luzon and the Visayas and in all districts of Mindanao.  These volunteers must be able-bodied and between the ages of 18 and 50.  They will be armed and equipped at the expense of the government and will receive reasonable salaries.


Emilio Aguinaldo, after conferring with an assembly of public officials, writes Mabini seeking advice on the practicability of sending a new peace commission and the wisdom of insisting on complete independence or compromising on a protectorate.


The first Philippine Assembly is inaugurated by the United States Secretary of War, William H. Taft.


In accordance with the provisions of the Jones Law, the new Philippine Legislature, consisting of an upper and a lower house or Senate and House of Representatives, meets for the first time.  Sergio Osmeña is elected Speaker of the House and Manuel L. Quezon, President of the Senate.


Governor-General Francis Burton Harrison creates the Council of State by Executive Order No. 37, to secure cooperation and harmony between the Department and the Legislature.  This body is composed of the Secretaries of Departments, the Senate President, and the Speaker of the House.  Its function is to advise the governor-general on important matters.


The Turtle Islands, part of the Philippines, by virtue of the Treaty of Paris of December 10, 1898 and leased by the Sultan of Sulu for many years to the British North Borneo Company is transferred to the Republic of the Philippines.

15 October


The vessel San Geronimo arrives at Cebu from New Spain.  Sent to aid Legaspi, it saw hardship, mutinies, deaths, and other calamities and arrives in such a poor condition that no smaller vessel could be made from it.  A number of its men die from eating too much cinnamon.


Birth of Manuel Artigas y Cuerva, scholar, biographer, journalist, historian and bibliographer, in Tacloban, Leyte.  Died on April 2, 1925.


The sum of P1,000,000 is appropriated for the improvement of the Port of Manila, the Canal, and the Pasig River.


The Taft Commission reports that "the insurrection" still continues in Batangas, Samar, Cebu and some parts of Laguna and Tayabas provinces.


The Constabulary Band is organized by Captain Walker Loving.

14 October


Mariano Ricafort y Abarca assumes office as Governor-General of the Philippines.  He forbids foreigners to sell goods at retail.


Some 151 Filipinos board the s.s. Manila bound for Cartegena, from which point they are to be transferred to Fernando Poo, where, by order of Governor-General Blanco, they are to serve their sentence in exiles, by reason of their involvement in the Revolution.


The Gaceta de Filipinas issues its last number.  It started as El Heraldo de la Revolucion, the organ of the Revolutionary Government, the first number of which came out September 29, 1898 was changed successively to Heraldo Filipino, to Indice Oficial, and finally to Gaceta de Filipinos.


Inauguration of the Japanese-sponsored Republic of the Philippines with Dr. Jose P. Laurel as President.

The first foreign treaty concluded by the Philippine Republic, the Japan-Philippine Pact of Alliance providing for political and economic cooperation between Japan and the Philippines, and also for military cooperation, is signed in Malacañang.

13 October


Birth of Teresa Magbanua, the first woman in the Visayas to fight for Philippine independence.  She died in August 1947.


Juan Luna leaves Singapore on board the German steamer Sachsen for Hongkong to confer with the Hongkong Junta.


Benigno Ramos releases printed newspaper, called The Sakdal. The original purpose of the Sakdalistas and their paper, is to accuse high government officials of acts which they declare to be detrimental to the country and the people.

12 October


Birth of General Mariano Trias, Revolutionary leader and Vice-President of the Revolutinary Government, in San Francisco de Malabon, now General Trias, Cavite.  Died on February 22, 1914.


The Boletin de Museo Biblioteca de Filipinas is founded by Pedro A. Paterno with the permission of the civil authorities.


The Legislature meets in joint session and publicly counts the votes cast for the President and Vice-President of the Philippines, certifying the results to the Governor-General.


Corregidor, which was occupied by the Japanese on May 6, 1942 and retaken by the Americans on March 2, 1945, is turned over to the Republic of the Philippines.

11 October


Governor-General Fernando de Bustamante is murdered in his palace by a mob led by friars.


Governor-General Ramon Blanco issues a circular to all provincial governor outlining a "policy of attraction."  He urges the provincial governors not to arrest persons unless there is serious evidence of guilt in order to impress the people with Spain's leniency and to restore tranquility and normal conditions.


The Manila Times, the first American daily, founded by Thomas Gowan, starts publication.


The transport Columbia arrives at Manila.

The Americans capture San Isidro, Nueva Ecija.  President Aguinaldo transfers the capital of the Republic to Tarlac and, shortly thereafter, to Bayambang, the last capital of our independent government.


In Manila a meeting is held between General Mariano Trias and the Japanese Consul who advises that Trias visit Japan.  Many Filipinos believe that concessions which they might be forced to make to Washington would be more agreeable if made to Japan, as "a nation of kindred blood would not be likely to assert superiority".  The Consul says Japan desires a coaling station and freedom to trade and build railways.


U.S. Carrier Task Force attacks Aparri, Luzon.

10 October


Pampangos rise in revolt under the leadership of Francisco Maniego.


General Downsonne Drake arrives in Manila to assume the post of Governor.  At this time, Archbishop-Governor Antonio Rojo urges the religious not to abandon their convents and to leave in each of them at least six friars to minister to the spiritual needs of the people.


The Grand Lodge of Spain urges every mason in the Spanish domains to induce the senators and representatives of Spain to work in favor of parliamentary representation in the Philippines.


Upon orders of a military court, Apolinario Mabini is arrested in his house by a sergeant of the Guardia Civil Veterana and confined to the San Juan de Dios Hospital because of his illness.

Death of Teodoro Plata, one of the founders of the Katipunan.  Born in the year 1866.

General Elwell S. Otis demands the removal of Filipino forces from Paco, Pandacan, and other points established by survey to be within the city limits.


The Bureau of Mines is organized.


The Revolutionary Committee in Hongkong asks for a constitutional convention.


A new opium law is passed, prohibiting the use of the drug after March 1, 1908.


Executive Order No. 54 is signed by Governor-General Leonard Wood creating a Committee of Arrangements for the ceremony of deliver of a copy of Juan Luna's Spoliarium painted by Juan Antonio Benlluire and a bronze bust of Juan Luna by Mariano Benlliure friends of Juan Luna in Rome (1880-1884), a project sponsored by Don Vicente Palmaroli, Consul General of Spain in the Philippines.

9 October


A solemn Eucharistic procession is held in Lumban, Laguna.


A letter from the King directs Governor Alfonso Fajardo to push the exploration of the "Igorrote" mining region, and to send nutmeg from the islands of Nueva España.


A mob of friars, army officers, and merchants, brandishing arms, upraised crucifixes, and lighted torches, led by Father Jose de Paternina, break into the governor's palace at night.  Governor Diego de Salcedo, bound like a common criminal, is imprisoned first at the Franciscan and later at the Augustinian convent.  His property is seized by his enemies, and the commissary takes possession of all his papers and valuable jewels.


A general massacre by rioters of Chinese and other foreigners, including British, takes place in Manila and Cavite.  Paul de la Gironiere, a French writer who witnesses the incident calls it the "Cholera Massacre."


Birth of Tomas Mascarado, revolutionary general, in Kawit, Cavite.  Died on July 7, 1932.


General Thomas M. Anderson and his staff, while proceeding up the Pasig River in a steam launch, are ordered to return to the city by Filipino guards.


American troops at Imus attack the Filipinos at San Nicolas, two miles east of Manila, and drive them from the road intersection there.  Four men are slightly wounded.  The enemy leaves six bodies on the field.

The Filipinos attack the American lines just outside Manila which consist of the Twenty-fifth Infantry and Battery E of the Fourth Artillery and which repulse the attack.  Three Americans are wounded.


A Committee of seven consisting of Manuel C. Briones, Filemon Sotto, Manuel A. Roxas, Conrado Benitez, Vicente Singson Encarnacion, Miguel Cuaderno, and Norberto Romualdez, is appointed to draft the Constitution of the Philippines.

8 October


Simon de Anda y Salazar makes Bacolor, Pampanga, the temporary capital of the Philippines in view of the British invasion of Manila.


Suppression of the Manila-Acapulco trade carried on by galleons for over two centuries and popularly known as the Galleon Trade.


Emilio Jacinto, the Brains of the Katipunan, writes his masterpiece, A La Patria  (To My Fatherland), which was probably inspired by Rizal' Ultimo Adios.


Upon orders of General Elwell S. Otis, Colonel Elliot and 300 marines attack the Filipinos outside Noveleta, Cavite, and carry the outposts and the town, while General Schwann takes Old Cavite and the approaches of Noveleta.  The s.s. Patrol shells the countryside, but the marines are subjected to hot fire from the Filipinos.


The Bureau of Education is established under the executive control of the Department of Public Instruction and the provinces organized into school districts with division superintendents taking charge.


The Wood-Forbes Mission submits a report to President Harding on the lack of educated public opinion in the Philippines and the fact that the Filipino people are not prepared, either from an economic, or a military viewpoint, to assume the responsibilities of an independent nation.

7 October


Governor-General Claveria issues a decree against vagrants.  Provincial authorities are asked to have these idlers rounded up and, after questioning, to employ them in public works for a month and then send them back to their hometowns.


Death of Jacobo Zobel y Zangroniz, writer, businessman, pharmacist, paleographist, and philologist.  Born in the year 1842.

6 October


Capitulation of Manila, with the British conquerors demanding payment of P4,000,000 indemnity from the Spanish government and the surrender of fortified areas in Manila, Cavite, and other places.

Vice-Admiral Samuel Cornish reports the success in the operations against Manila and gives accounts of his expedition.

Simon de Anda promulgates an order enjoining watchfulness on the part of the alcaldes-mayor.  They are to forbid all passage to Manila, both of persons and supplies; are to deny aid to the British and all strangers under their jurisdiction; and are to arrest or kill all suspects


Birth of Aurelio Tolentino, outstanding poet, novelist, dramatist, and journalist, in Guagua, Pampanga.  Died on July, 1915.


Dr. Jose Rizal is taken from Montjuich castle in Barcelona to the transport "Colon" to sail back to the Philippines.  He is given a second class cabin and is held incommunicado.


Francis Burton Harrison, assumes office as governor-general.  He gives the Filipino citizens a majority in the appointive commission, and secures majority representation in the upper as well as in the lower house of the legislature.

5 October


Archbishop Manuel Antonio Rojo, acting governor-general, surrenders the city of Manila to the British invaders in order to end the slaughter of soldiers and civilians.

Simon de Anda issues his first proclamation in the town of Bulacan, naming himself Captain-General and Supreme Governor of the Philippines and President of the Real Audiencia in conformity with the provisions of law and by reason of the fall of Manila.


A royal decree is issued changing the method of electing the town officials.  Known as Municipal Election Law of 1847, it provides that the gobernadorcillo and other local officials are to be elected annually by an electoral board consisting of the outgoing gobernadorcillo, the ex-gobernadorcillos and the cabezas de barangay.


The Queen Regent, favorably acting on a petition of Governor-General Weyler, raises Iloilo town to the rank of chartered city.


El Album Militar, founded by Don Mariano de Ciria, is issued.  It has sixteen pages and is sold at one peso a month to military officials, and comes out every ten days.


The Instituto de Manila (later known as the University of Manila) is established.


Leonard Wood starts his term of office as governor-general of the Philippines.  Upon assumption of office, Governor Wood manifests his opposition to the independence aspirations of the Filipinos, and vetoes 16 bills passed by the Philippine Legislature.  As a result, all the Filipino members of the Cabinet and the Council of States resigned en mass on 7 June 1923.  This is known as the "Cabinet Crisis of 1923."

4 October


The British invaders smash all Spanish and Filipino opposition within and outside the Walled City.

Simon de Anda y Salazar, who promises to keep the islands for Spain, leaves Manila at 10 o'clock in the evening, setting of a small banca to Bulacan.


Charles IV reduces tariffs on Philippine goods for a period of four years in order to encourage trade.


Birth of Francisco Roman, tobacco manufacturer, revolutionary leader, hero of the battle of Caloocan, on February 28, 1899.


The Fabrica de Cerveza de San Miguel, founded by D. Enrique Maria Baretto de Ycaza on March 4, 1890, is inaugurated.

3 October


The first Chinese revolt is quickly suppressed after many Filipinos from Quiapo and Tondo are killed.


A Dutch-Spanish naval battle takes place off Corregidor ending in defeat for the Dutch.


At dawn the Filipinos led by Manalastas, a Pampango leader, rush out of their encampment, and assault the British trenches in Manila.  About 200 British soldiers are killed in the ensuing hand-to-hand combat.

Archbishop Antonio Rojo convenes a Council of War, for the purpose of deciding the issue of surrendering or continuing the seemingly hopeless struggle against the British troops.


The S.S. Astrea, the first American trading vessel to reach the Philippines under Capt. Henry Price, calls at Manila and takes a cargo of indigo, hemp, pepper, and sugar for the United States.


The three regular delegates to represent the Philippines in the Spanish Cortes are sworn into office: Francisco Bringas y Toranco, Vicente Posadas, and Manuel Saenz de Vizmanos.


A Royal decree is implemented abolishing the privilege of provincial chiefs to engage in trade in view of the abuses which arise from this commercial privilege to the detriment of Filipinos and Spaniards alike.


Birth of Candido Iban, one of the donors of a small printing press to the Katipunan and one of the 19 martyrs of Capiz.


General Vicente Lukban returns to the Philippines from Hongkong, where he and other revolutionaries were exiled.


A company of soldiers in blue jackets and a company of marines from the Baltimore land at Bacoor, nine miles south of Manila, to help General Grant clear the Filipino forces from his front.


Apolinario Mabini, the "Brains of the Revolution," who was captured by American soldiers in Cuyapo, Nueva Ecija in December, 1899, is released, upon orders of the American authorities, from imprisonment at the Anda Jail.  He goes to live in Nagtahan.  Destitute and unemployed, he is supported by his friends, Drs. Isidro de Santos and Aquilino Calvo.


Enactment of the Underwood Tariff Law, which establishes free trade relations between the Philippines and the United States and abolishes Philippine export duties.


General elections are held to choose the country's representatives to the newly established bicameral Philippine Legislature, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives.


End of the term of office of Francis Burton Harrison as Governor-General of the Philippines.

2 October


Gonzalo de Pereira, Captain-Mayor of the Portuguese, once more appears in Cebu at the head of ten powerful ships demanding the complete evacuation of the Spaniards.


Birth of General Rafael Crame, first Filipino chief of Constabulary, in Malabon, Rizal.  Died on January 1, 1927.


At the instance of the Minister of the Ultramar, Segismundo Moret, the royal ruler of Spain decrees that the Tagalog dialect be taught at the Central University of Madrid.


The first elections are held under the Negros Constitution.  Melecio Severino is chosen Civil Governor, the first provincial governor to be elected under the American flag.

Commander Cornwell sets out on a successful expedition to Orani, Bataan, a town near which the gunboat Urdaneta was sunk by the Filipinos.  The Callao, Petrel, Helena, and Mindoro enter the river, and a party under Captain Franklin makes an examination of the Urdaneta, which is afterwards floated and repaired.  The warships bombard Orani, setting the place on fire.


The Cebuanos send to the Congress of the United States a Memorial, written by Juan Climaco, in favor of the Revolution and in which they beg the American Government to declare the Philippines independent.  Those who signed the document were Florentino Rallos, Tomas Osmeña, Luis Flores, V. Toribio Padilla, P. Emiliano Mercado, P. Emiliano Veloso, Marcial Velez, Leoncio Mansueto, Timoteo Castro, Gregorio Gandiongco, P. Alejandro Espina, Juan Velez, Manuel Roa, Pedro Rivera Mir, Catalino Igno, Crispulo Rafols, the Director of La Justicia, Vicente Sotto, Alejandro Climaco, Amado Afable, Placido Cepeda, Anastacio Vidal, and many others.

1 October


Simon de Anda y Salazar is appointed lieutenant governor and captain-general by the Archbishop who does so in his capacity as governor and captain-general of the Philippines.  Due to the British invasion, Anda leaves Manila and establishes capital in Bacolor, Pampanga, and proclaims himself governor.


The King of Spain proclaims the abolition of the Spanish Cortes and the Constitution.


The Professional School is founded.  Accounting, business correspondence, mathematics, French, English, and other similar subjects are taught free of charge.  The school is housed in the same building as the Nautical Academy.


Manila is rocked by a strong earthquake.


Inauguration of the Academy of Pedagogy, an association of well-trained teachers.


The peace negotiations between Spain and the United States start.  The knottiest problem confronting the commissioners is the disposal of the Philippines.  To the Americans the Philippines is terra incognita; General Merritt and other officials familiar with the subject go to Paris to furnish the necessary information to the Peace Conference.

President McKinley receives Felipe Agoncillo in Washington.

Cayetano Arellano takes his oath of office for the portfolio of Foreign Affairs together with Dr. T. H. Pardo de Tavera, who is sworn in as Director of Diplomacy.


The new Filipino delegation headed by General Alejandrino, confers with American authorities.


The Philippine Independent Church is established in the house of Francisca de Liza Vda. De Ocampo, at No. 54 Espeleta, Sta. Cruz, Manila, where ten Filipino secular priests, headed by Father Gregorio Aglipay, sign the Constitution of the new Church, which officially declares itself emancipated from the authority of the Roman Catholic Pope.


The first convention of provincial governors of provincial governors is held in Manila.


The first official census under the Republic is taken and its results are compiled by the Bureau of Census and Statistics.  It is the first census to be taken by an all-Filipino staff, headed by Dr. Leon Ma. Gonzales.  By special proclamation of the President, this day is designated as "Census Day."

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