Historical Calendar. National Historical Institute, Manila, 1996.

30 September


Jeronimo de Silva arrives and takes charge of the military affairs of the Philippines.  He wins a victory over seven Dutch vessels off Corregidor.


A royal cedula is issued providing that the inspection, weighing, and measuring of merchandise on board the galleons must be resorted to only when complaints are made about cargo exceeding its legal value.


Birth of Sofia R. de Veyra, social worker, educator, secretary of the Asociacion Feminista and director of the Woman's Board of Saint Paul's Hospital.  Died on January 1, 1953.


Dr. Jose Rizal, in his essay "Filipinas Dentro de cien años," which appears for the first time in La Solidaridad at Madrid, exhorts Spain to give more rights to Filipinos, or she will surely lose the Philippines.


A royal order is issued committing Rizal, to the garrison of Alhucemas, where he is to stay as a deportee.

Skirmishes with Spanish forces takes place in Marikina, Muntinglupa and other points close to Cavite, with the Filipinos winning the engagements.

The revolutionaries of San Mateo and Bosoboso joining forces with those of Binangonan, attack Cainta, and capture all the weapons and ammunition in the town hall.


President Diosdado Macapagal issues an executive order implementing R.A. 2717, otherwise known as the Electrification Administration Act, to provide electricity to every town and reduce the cost of electric power for industrial development.

29 September


Governor Rojo personally commands a surprise attack by 500 Filipinos and a number of Spanish residents on the British.


The island of Burias is placed under the Revolutionary Government by General Ananias Diokno, its seat being in San Pascual.

The first number of El Heraldo de la Revolucion is issued at Malolos, Bulacan.  As the official publication, of the Malolos Congress, it prints and publishes the decrees, proclamations, and accounts of the proceedings of the Congress.

The declaration of independence of the Philippines is ratified by the Revolutionary Congress at Malolos, Bulacan.

Dr. T.H. Pardo de Tavera is appointed honorary member of the Board of Health of Manila by General Elwell S. Otis.


Mabini prepares a memorandum to General MacArthur stating that independence is the ideal nearest to the hearts of the great majority of the Filipinos, "with the limitations imposed by the Americans and accepted by the Filipinos."


In retaliation for the attacks and threats made by the American soldiers on the people of Balangiga, Samar, the townspeople attack them while they are having breakfast at their quarters in the convent house, killing 45 soldiers and 3 officers.

28 September


Juan Vargas begins his administration as governor-general of the Philippines.  He rebuilds the College of Santa Potenciana in Manila.


Father Miguel Brañas, O.S.A., chosen by the Governor to lead the Filipino troops from San Fernando to Bangcusay, succeeds in bringing into the city new reinforcements composed of 1,000 Tagalogs and 4,000 Pampangos.


The President of the provisional government of Albay, Anacleto Solano, sends a message of adhesion to General Emilio Aguinaldo, President of the Philippine Republic.


General Jacob H. Smith invades the province of Samar and carries out his famous order to burn and kill, evan children 10 years of age, and convert the unfortunate province into a "howling wilderness."  This is the so-called "Balangiga Affair."


Birth of Wenceslao Q. Vinzons, delegate to Constitutional Convention, governor of Camarinez Norte and patriot.  He died on July 8, 1942.


An eruption of Taal volcano kills about 2,000 persons, wipes out an entire barrio an destroys 10 other sitios.

27 September


A royal decree authorizes Admiral Ignacio Maria de Alava to establish a naval bureau in Manila with full command and jurisdiction of the navy in the Philippines.  This bureau takes charge of the management of the Cavite shipyard, the construction of the vessel, and the naval defense of the Philippines.


Birth of Cosme Abaya, a Roman Catholic Priest, one of the supporters of Father Jose Burgos in the secularization movement, in Candon, Ilocos Sur.  Died on June 4, 1908.


Birth of Benito Legarda, statesman, Vice-President of the Malolos Congress, member of the Philippine Commission, and one of the resident commissioners sent to the United
States.  Died on August 27, 1915.


Birth of General Malvar, farmer, businessman, Batangas revolutionary leader and the last general to surrender to the Americans.  Died on October 13, 1911.


The Miguel Malvar Centenary Year is celebrated under the sponsorship of the National Historical Commission.

26 September


Archers from Pampanga, Bulacan and Laguna are employed by the Spanish government against the British invaders but to no avail.


Filipino residents in Madrid send a Memorial to the government protesting the abuses of the Spaniards and friars in Calamba.


Gregorio Araneta is appointed Secretary of Justice and Felipe Buencamino, Secretary of Development of the Aguinaldo Cabinet.

The following leaders compose the Philippine military hierarchy:  Emilio Aguinaldo, President; Baldomero Aguinaldo, Secretary of War; Antonio Luna, Director; Artemio Ricarted, Vito Belarmino, Emiliano Riegos de Dios – Generals of Division; Tomas Mascardo, Pantaleon Garcia, Mariano Llanera, Mariano Noriel, Isidro Torres, Miguel Malvar, and Paciano Rizal – Brigadier-Generals.

25 September


Birth of Lope K. Santos, foremost Tagalog grammarian, writer, labor leader and politician, founder of Taliban ng Inang Wika and Kapatirang Alagad ni Bonifactio, Inc., in Pasig, Rizal.  Died on May 1, 1963.


The Filipino Congress assembles in the church at Barasoain to perfect the organization of the Filipino government.


President Roosevelt orders the formulation of the Philippine Census Office.


Simeon Arboleda Ola, revolutionary leader of Guinobatan, Albay, surrenders to Colonel Harry H. Banholtz.


The National Assembly of the Japanese occupation government holds a general session to elect its Speaker and the President of the Republic.  Benigno A. Aquino, is chosen Speaker and Jose P. Laurel, President.

24 September


Convinced that the Philippines is situated within the Spanish zone marked out by the 1493 demarcation lines, Philip II, of Spain, decides to send one more expedition to the Philippines.  He instructs the Viceroy of Mexico to fit out two ships for the purpose, insisting that the latter avoid sailing the ships to Moluccas.


Manuel de Leon takes possession of the Philippines as new governor-general.  During his time the seeds of "cacao" are brought to the Philippines and planted in Carigara, Leyte.


Eruption of Taal Volcano


After their demand for the surrender of Manila is rejected, the British troops attack and bombard the Walled City.  From the bastion of San Diego and San Andres, Spanish guns retaliate throughout the day but without success.  General Draper assures Filipinos and mestizos that they will not be harmed, unless they make common cause with the Spaniards in the fight, and promises to exempt women and children from tribute.


Establishment of the town of Legazpi.

23 September


Two English officers land from the British squadron, which arrived on the 22nd, stating that they have orders from their King to take possession of the Islands and to demand the immediate surrender of the Spanish forces.  Supported by naval artillery, they occupy the churches of Malate, Ermita, San Juan de Bagumbayan, and Santiago and all houses in the area.


The Spanish King promulgates a royal order providing that only lawyers can be appointed alcaldes mayors.


Felipe Agoncillo, special Philippine envoy, and his secretary Sixto Lopez, arrive in San Francisco on their way to Washington to confer with President McKinley regarding the Philippine case, which is to be discussed in the forthcoming peace conference in Paris.

Evacuation of all Spaniards residing in the Bicol region.


Aguinaldo publishes his pamphlet, the ""True Narrative of the Philippine Revolution" (Reseña Verdica de la Revolucion Filipina) in Tarlac.  It is a litany of charges against the American occupation.


The National Assembly meet in inaugural session at the Legislative Building in Japanese-occupied Manila.

22 September


Spanish authorities in Manila are caught unaware by the arrival in Manila Bay of a British fleet jointly commanded by Admiral Samuel Cornish and General William Draper.


By a royal decree the Beaterio de Santa Rosa is founded.  Mother Paula de la Santisima Trinidad, a native of Cataluña, who arrived in 1750, dedicates herself to the education of girls and starts this foundation.  The girls are taught reading and sewing.


The Filipinos capture Albay, then march to Legazpi, forcing the Spaniards to flee.

Some 1,500 Tagalogs land in Antique, bringing with them heavy artillery.

21 September


A Dominican friar, Juan de Arrechedera, a native of Caracas, and bishop-elect of Nueva Segovia, becomes ad interim governor of the Philippines.  He quells the insurrection in Batangas and fortifies Manila and Cavite against the English.


Governor Carlos Maria de la Torre entertains Filipinos at a reception in honor of the promulgation of the new Spanish Constitution in the Philippines.


The Sultan and Datus of Buloung, Cotabato, inform the Spanish authorities that they are willing to acknowledge Spanish rule in their territories.  The offer is accepted by the Military Commander of the Parang garrison, thus completing the pacification of the entire district.


Tomas Remigio is arrested by the Spanish authorities because of his revolutionary activities.  He is sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment and incarcerated in Barcelona and, later, in Cartagena, Spain.


Dr. T. H. Pardo de Tavera, who is in favor of a Philippine Republic under American protection, says that he is the most ardent defender of that idea and its principal propagandist.


General John C. Bates returns from Jolo after having stationed garrisons of one company each at Siasi and Tawi-Tawi.


All Filipino prisoners in Guam, except Apolinario Mabini, his brother, Artemio Ricarted, and Aquilino Randeza, board the transport "Warren" and sail for Manila.


American planes in great  numbers bomb Japanese military installations in Manila and other parts of the Philippines.

20 September


Execution of Josefa Gabriela Silang, leader, after her husband Diego of a bloody revolt.


A royal order is issued creating the Port of Zamboanga.


Birth in Dingras, Ilocos Norte, of Josefa Escoda, social worker provider of food, clothing, medicine, and comfort to Filipino and American prisoners of war during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines.  Died in January, 1945.


Twenty miles of railway are opened for traffic in Cebu.


Canonical coronation of the Virgin of Peñafrancia in Naga City.


The election of the delegates to the Japanese-sponsored National Assembly takes place.  One half of them are elected by provincial and municipal officials, who have to choose from the names submitted by the KALIBAPI.  The other half is composed of provincial governors and city mayors, who under the new Constitution, are to be ex-officio members of the assembly.

19 September


Birth of Joaquin Pardo de Tavera, lawyer, doctor of Jurisprudence, professor and councilor of Administration of the Ayutamiento of Manila.  Died on March 19, 1884.


The Royal Commissary is created to undertake an extensive survey of conditions in the Philippines, particularly the problems besetting local civil administration.


The Philippine Commission adopts a civil service system which makes appointments to government service dependent on the results of competitive tests.

18 September


The Santa Isabel College, which was founded by the Hermandad de la Misericordia in 1634 for the support and education of orpan girls, is entrusted to the Sisters of Charity.


The Colegio de Santa Isabel in Nueva Caceres, is founded by Rt. Rev. Francisco C. Cainza and named after Saint Isabel Queen of Hungary.


El Filibusterismo a second novel by Jose Rizal, is printed in Ghent, Belgium.


End of the Spanish politico-government in Catanduanes.


A group of Nacionalistas confer with Governor Taft about the formation of a Democratic Party which will work peacefully for the independence of the Philippines.


Arsenio Cruz Herrera, former delegate to the Malolos Congress, resigns from his position as member of the Municipal Board of Manila.


The election of Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña as President and Vice-President, respectively of the Commonwealth of the Philippines is announced by the Congress.

17 September


Birth of General Francisco Makabulos, Revolutionary leader in La Paz, Tarlac.  Died on April 30, 1922.


Uprising of the Guardia Civil in Neuva Caceres.


The gunboat Urdaneta is captured by the Filipinos and her commander and members of the crew killed.


General Juan Cailles defeats Coronel Cheatham's troops in the Battle of Mabitac, Laguna


The tariff laws of the Islands are revised, readjusted and amended.


The first election under the new constitution of the Philippines is held.  Manuel L. Quezon is elected President of the Commonwealth.


Mindanao and  Visayas, besides Legaspi and Ligao, both in Albay, experience air attacks from the American forces.

16 September


Death, in Manila, of Fr. Pedro Chirino, Jesuit, historian and author of Relacion de las Islas Filipinas, published in Rome, 1604, and one of the first history books on the Philippines.


The Ilokanos of Piddig, Ilocos Norte, take up arms against the wine monopoly and the government prohibition of the manufacture of basi\, a native rice wine.  The uprising was afterwards to be known as the Basi Revolt.


Twenty-two prominent residents of Manila are imprisoned at Fort Santiago.  They are Rosario Villaruel, Telesforo Chuidian, Mariano Limjap, Luis R. Yangco, Lorenzo del Rosario, Pedro Casimiro, Ambrosio Salvador, Bonifacio Arevalo, Maximo Paterno, Antonio Salazar, Juan Luna, Antonio Luna, Dr. Jose Luna, Isidro Soto Villaruel, Felipe Zamora, Numeriano Adriano, Ambrosio Flores, Dr. Jose Albert, Isaac Fernando Rios, Marcelino de los Santos, Ambrocio Rianzares Bautista, Nazario Constantino.

A reign of terror takes place in the town of Nueva Caceres (now Naga City).


Benito Legarda is elected Vice-President of the Malolos Congress.


The first bishop of the newly created Diocese of Bacolod, Mons. Casimiro M. Lladoc, is consecrated at Naga, Camarines Sur.

15 September


Representatives of the provinces meet at Barasoain Church, in Malolos, Bulacan, and convene the revolutionary Congress, which drafts the Constitution of the First Philippine Republic.

La Republica Filipina, founded by Pedro A. Paterno, starts publication.

The Filipino forces withdraw, as requested by General Otis, from the limits of the city of Manila, with exception of the districts of Paco and Pandacan, south of the Pasig river.


The Government telegraph and telephone lines are transferred from the United States Signal Corps to the Civil Government and placed under the charge of the chief of the Philippine Constabulary.        

14 September


 A royal decree is issued prohibiting the Governors and the Captain-General from opening letters addressed to private persons.


Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu writes Governor Rodrigo de Vivero that in Japan, there are neither robbers nor bad men and that if the Japanese in the Philippines commit any form of injustice, Governor Vivero should put them to death.


The historic galleon trade between the Philippines and Mexico is ended.

13 September


Emilio Aguinaldo sends General Elwell S. Otis a commission of three members to request the American commander to withdraw his ultimatum and to request, instead, compliance with Filipino demands.


Colonel Maximo Abad and his brave band of Filipino guerillas capture a company of American soldiers under the command of Captain James Shields near Santa Cruz, Marinduque.


Macario L. Sakay and Lucio de Vega, the last of the Filipino resistance fighters against the Americans, are hanged for "banditry".

12 September


The cornerstone of the church of Santa Ana, Manila, is laid by Francisco de la Cuesta, Archbishop of Manila.


Birth of Mariano Riego de Dios, revolutionary leader, in Maragondon, Cavite. Died on February 7, 1935.


Dr. Jose Rizal writes the poem En el Bello Oriente.


Thirteen Filipinos are executed by the Spanish authorities at Plaza de Armas, near Fort of San Felipe, Cavite City.  They are Maximo Inocencio, Luis Arguado, Victoriano Luciano, Hugo Perez, Jose Lallana, Antonio San Agustin, Agapito Conchu, Feliciano Cabuco, Maximo Gregorio, Eugenio Cabezas, Severino Lapidario, Alfonso de Ocampo, and Francisco Osorio.  They are now know as the Thirteen Martyrs of Cavite.


End of Spanish rule in Camarines Norte.

American officials inform their government that it is no longer possible for Spain, under any circumstance, to regain possession of the Philippines, a point that is essential in determining whether a new, independent nation should be recognized.


The Philippine Commission appropriates P2 million for the construction and repair of roads and bridges in the Philippines.


An Act is passed providing for the segregation of lepers.

11 September


The authorities of the city of Manila decide to prohibit the entry of all Portuguese from Macao.


Birth of Concepcion A. Aguilla, educator, lawyer, in San Jose, Batangas.  She died on December 16, 1958.

10 September


Gabriela Silang fights a battle with the Spaniards in Vigan.


Birth of Nicolas Zamora, founder of the Iglesia Evangelica Metodista de las Islas Pilipinas.


The capital of the Revolutionary Government moves to Malolos, Bulacan, from Bacoor, Cavite, in view of the danger of an armed clash between the American forces and the revolutionaries.
The American Soldier, a privately owned American newspaper in the Philippines founded by George S. Geis, publishes its first issue in Manila.

American forces reconnoiter the vicinity of Sampaloc provoking General Pantaleon Garcia, who holds this particular line of defense, to report the matter to General Aguinaldo.  He is ordered to ask the Americans to leave and to prepare to defend his line against any intrusion.

With the Americans reportedly pressing forward north of the river towards Caloocan and La Loma, Aguinaldo authorizes resistance to secure these positions.

Howard Bray writes Emilio Aguinaldo that General Merritt has intimated to him that the Revolutionary Government should occupy Visayas and Mindanao.

9 September


Pedro Antonio Salazar Castillo y Varona, native of Ibrillos (Rioja), Spain, and military officer, becomes ad interim governor.  He endeavors to develop the cultivation of cotton and tea in the Philippines, but the experiment did not produce material result.


Birth of Sergio Osmeña, Sr., journalist, nationalist, Speaker of the First Philippine Assembly and second President of the Commonwealth, in Cebu.  Died on October 19, 1961.


Emilio Aguinaldo invites the townpeople to a luncheon-meeting at the convent of Palanan and speaks to them of their patriotic duties especially with regards to the Americans.

8 September


Birth of Vicente Ilustre, poet lawyer, propagandist, and patriot, in Taal, Batangas.  He died in 1928.


Birth of Adriano Hernandez, musician, delegate to the Malolos Congress, revolutionary general and first Filipino director of the Bureau of Agriculture (now Bureau of Plant Industry).  Died on February 16, 1925.


The steamer Isla de Panay, with Dr. Jose Rizal on board, reaches Singapore on its way to Spain and Cuba.  Pedro Roxas, a Filipino revolutionary asks Rizal to leave the vessel and join him.

Upon learning of Rizal's history as a radical, the Council of Ministers in Madrid decides to have him imprisoned at Montjuich Castle as soon as he arrives in Barcelona.


General Otis demands the withdrawal of Filipino forces from the entire city of Manila, its suburbs, and defenses.


The Philippine Commission certifies to the President of the United States that peace exists in the Philippines.

The war between the Philippines and the United States is officially declared at an end, but the law against treason and sedition is not repealed.


The diocese of Lucena, Quezon, is established.


The San Francisco Peace Treaty between Japan and 48 Allied Powers, including the Philippines, is signed in San Francisco, California.


The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization is organized with the United States, Great Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Thailand and the Philippines as members.

7 September


Sebastian del Cano arrives at San Lucar de Barrameda with only 18 men after sailing three years with Magellan.


Death of Blas de la Madre de Dios, a Franciscan father, founder of the town of Morong, Rizal, and author of  Flora de Filipinas, a dissertation on the medicinal properties of plants in the Philippines.


Birth of Regino Garcia y Basa, artist, botanist and forester, instructor in printing at the University of Santo Tomas and director of walks and gardens and parks for Manila.  Died on July 16, 1916.


President Manuel A. Roxas signs RA. No. 14 which changes the name of Tayabas to Quezon, in honor of the late President Quezon.

6 September


A royal decree opens the Philippines and Manila to international trade.

A royal decree abolishes the Royal Company of the Philippines which was created to encourage trade between Spain and Asian countries, particularly the Philippines and sought to stimulate the development of agriculture and extractive industries, and to carry on its ships, free of charge, professors of natural sciences and exact science coming to the Philippines.  The company also bought oriental goods in Manila instead of buying them as it should have, in China or India directly in order to bring down prices.  European vessels were allowed to enter Manila for a limited time so that they could bring more Asian goods, which was clear violation of Spain's monopolistic policy.  Towards the end of its existence the company suffered financial losses.  Because of this the Cortes abolished the company's exclusive privilege in 1820, and abolished the company itself on this date.


Emilio Aguinaldo and his party arrive at Palanan and are enthusiastically welcomed by a large crowd and a brass band.


By virtue of the Philippine Bill of 1902, the organization of the executive department is approved and ratified.


The Laurel-Langley Agreement is approved by both the American and Philippine Governments following its conclusion by Senator Jose P. Laurel and James M. Langley on 15 December 1954.  It is put into effect on 1 January 1946

5 September


A royal decree declares that the central government of the Philippines is composed of Manila, Fort Santiago, Fort San Antonio Abad and the Plaza de Cavite.


A royal decree establishes the government monopoly on tobacco.

4 September


Jose Gardoqui Jaraveita arrives in Manila and assumes the governorship of the Philippines.  Several political uprisings occur, causing the government a great deal of trouble and worry.


Birth of Rosalio Silos, musician composer, patriot and martyr.  Died on December 29, 1896.


The first of a series of executions at the Luneta is ordered by the Spanish government.  Sancho Valenzuela, Eugenio Silvestre, Modesto Sarmiento, and Ramon Peralta are killed for complicity in the battle of San Juan del Monte.


Emilio Aguinaldo issues an executive proclamation summoning the people to send delegates to the Congress to be held in Malolos, Bulacan, on 15 September.


The first Filipino ever to be raised to an Episcopal seat, Bishop Jorge Barlin Imperial, of the See of Nueva Caceres, dies in Rome.


In the thick of World War II, the Preparatory Committee on Philippine Independence headed by Dr. Jose P. Laurel adopts a Constitution for the Japanese-sponsored Republic of the Philippines.

3 September


Birth of General Simeon de Jesus, hero of World War II, in Arayat, Pampanga.

In Concepcion, Tarlac, birth of Benigno A. Aquino, lawyer, assemblyman and special Legislative envoy to Washington in 1932.  Died on December 20, 1947.


En route to Cuba Dr. Jose Rizal is transferred from the Spanish cruiser Isla de Panay and sails for Spain via Singapore.


La Independencia, the periodical organ of the Revolution, is founded by General Antonio Luna, with Leon Ma. Guerrero, Cecilio Apostol, Jose Palma, Mariano V. del Rosario, Rosa Sevilla, Rafael Palma, Fernando Ma. Guerrero, Salvador V. del Rosario, and Felipe G. Calderon as staff members.


The Spanish lyrics of the Philippine National Anthem are first published in La Independencia.

Filipino police begin to patrol the city of Manila in cooperation with the provost guard.  The new force includes many members of the old unit as well as some revolutionaries grown tired of fighting.


General Tomoyuki Yamashita, the so-called "Tiger of Malaya" and Commander of the Japanese forces in the Philippines, formally surrenders in Baguio to the American forces.

The capitulation document for the surrender of the Japanese Imperial Forces is signed by Yamashita and, on the part of the United States, by Major-General E. H. Leahey, personal representative of General Douglas MacArthur, in Tokyo.

2 September


King Philip II, on the advice of Andres de Urdaneta, orders Luis de Velasco, viceroy of Mexico, to prepare an expedition for the conquest and Christianization of the Philippines.


Birth of Rosalio Serrano, surveyor and lexicographer.  Died August 11, 1867.


Birth of Simeon Ola, Katipunero, revolutionary army officer and municipal president of Guinobatan, Albay.  Died on February 14, 1952.

Birth of Estanislao de los Reyes, member of the Katipunan and governor of Ilocos Sur.  Died on November 10, 1918.


The revolutionary forces of Nueva Ecija, two thousand strong and led by General Mariano Llanera, besiege the Spanish garrison of San Isidro.  Theirs leaders are on horseback, the revolutionaries were red ribbons and parade down the main roads to the music of the Cabiao band.

Melchora Aquino, known as "Tandang Sora," is exiled to Guam for complicity with the Revolution.


The First Battalion of the First Dakota Volunteer Infantry, disembarks at Manila.


The revolutionaries make an unsuccessful attempt early in the morning to drive Colonel Smith's command out of Angeles with artillery, the first time in six months that they have attempted to use this weapon.  They bring two Krupp guns from Porac and fire eight shells at the town.


The Bureau of Public Lands is created for the administration of the public domain.


The Pacific War ends as Japan formally surrenders.

1 September


Rafael Maria de Aguillar y Ponce de Leon, Knight of the Order of Alcantara, and a military officer, assumes governorship of the Philippines.  He strengthens fortifications, calls into service Filipino troops, introduces various reforms, and establishes a shipyard at Binondo to build boats for war with the Muslims.


A royal decree is issued by King Charles IV ordering the use of smallpox vaccine in the Philippines.  The office of Smallpox Vaccine is created by another decree, that of December 20, 1806.


Founding of the Ateneo Municipal de Manila.


Birth of Alejandro Albert, educator, pharmacist and the "Father of Baseball" in the Philippines.  Died on December 20, 1936.


The Revista Popular de Filipinas is published by Pascual H. Poblete.


Dr. Pio Valenzuela submits to the Spanish authorities after having failed to see the chief executive in Malacañang.  He is granted executive pardon; and freely discloses information concerning the Katipunan, its codes, its plans, and the identity of its leading members.

The leaders of Kawit, Cavite, join the Imus bolomen under Jose Tagle in attacking and capturing the estate house of the friars and barracks of the civil guards in Imus.


The Boletin de la Camara de Commercio Española en Filipinas is published.


Its preliminary task as a fact-finding committee having come to an end, the Taft Commission begins its legislative and executive functions.


Three outspoken pro-American Filipinos – Dr. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera, Benito Legarda, Sr., and Jose Luzuriaga are appointed members of the Philippine Commission.

Four members of the Commission are made heads or secretaries of the Executive Departments by the President of the United States.  These are: for Commerce and Police, Luke E. Wright; for Finance and Justice, Henry C. Ide; for Public Instruction, Bernard Moses; and for Interior, Dean S. Worcester.

El Renacimiento, an anti-American daily, is published with Martin Ocampo as publisher and Rafael Palma as editor.

The Philippine Normal College, established as a Normal School by Act No. 74 of the Philippine Commission, opens in the Escuela Municipal, Intramuros, Manila.

The Philippine Constabulary detachment for Ambos Camarines is organized by Captain Edward S. Luthi and quartered in Nueva Caceres.


The City of Baguio is founded.


President Elpidio Quirino appoints Ramon Magsaysay Secretary of National Defense.

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